Williamsville Central School District
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Unit Three: Industrialization of the United States

Content Concepts/
  1. Reconstruction plans
    1. Lincoln?s plan
    2. Congressional Reconstruction
    3. Post-Civil War amendments (13th, 14th, and 15th)
    4. Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
    5. The reconstructed nation and shifting relationships between the federal government, state governments, and individual citizens
  • In what ways were the Congressional Republican plans for Reconstruction more "radical" than those of Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson? What were their views on secession, amnesty and pardon, and procedures for readmission of the Confederate states?
  • How might the debate over Reconstruction have been seen as an attempt to restore the balance of power between Congress and President that had been eroded by Lincoln?s wartime measures?
  • Why did the Radical Republicans want to impeach Andrew Johnson? What are the constitutional grounds for impeachment? Had Johnson been removed from office through the impeachment process, how might our government system have changed?
  • What are the specific provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments? In spite of the passage of these amendments, how did the Southern states deprive African-Americans of these rights for over 100 years?
  • What impact did the withdrawal of federal support for enforcement of these amendments have upon the status of freedmen?
  1. The North
    1. Economic and technological impacts of the Civil War
    2. Expanding world markets
    3. Developing labor needs
Factors of
  • In what ways did the North benefit economically from the Civil War?
  1. The New South
    1. Agriculture: land and labor (sharecropping and tenant farming)
    2. Status of freedmen
      1. The economic, political, social, and educational experiences of formerly enslaved African-Americans
Places and

Students should understand what economic changes were brought about in the South in the years after the Civil War.

  • What new forms of economic and political discrimination developed in the years following the Civil War?
  • In what ways did the Freedmen?s Bureau benefit freed slaves?
      1. From exclusion to segregation
    1. Struggle for political control in the New South
    2. Supreme Court interpretations of the 13th and 14th amendments (Civil Rights Cases, 1883)
    3. The emerging debate over "proper" role of African-Americans
  1. End of Reconstruction
    1. Disputed election of 1876
    2. End of military occupation
    3. Restoration of white control in the South (1870s and 1880s) and abridgment of rights of freed African-Americans
    4. Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896: "separate but equal"
  • What were the successes and failures of Reconstruction?
  • How did the Supreme Court rulings in the Civil Rights Cases narrow the meaning of the 14th Amendment?
  • Students might use excerpts from speeches and writings of Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois to compare and contrast the strategies of each to achieve equal rights. Ask students to evaluate the effectiveness of each strategy.
  • How did the Compromise of 1877 contribute to segregation?
  • Why did the Northern Republicans and Congressional leaders abandon African-Americans in the 1870s?
  • Use excerpts from the Supreme Court?s ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson to demonstrate that the Court?s interpretation of the 14th Amendment established a legal basis for segregation.
  1. The Impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction: Summary
    1. On political alignments
    2. On the nature of citizenship
    3. On federal-state relations
    4. On the development of the North as an industrial power
    5. On American society

  • How successful were the Radical Republicans in achieving their Reconstruction goals?
  • How and why did the "Solid South" emerge?
  • What issues became the primary concerns of the Republican Party after 1877?
  • What major civil rights issues remained unresolved?
  • How were economic development and expansion of the United States affected by the Civil War and Reconstruction?
  • Did the Compromise of 1877 make the end of the Civil War a "draw" rather than a "victory" for the North?
Content Concepts/
  1. Economic transformation and the "search for order"
    1. Business response to change: organize and rationalize
    2. Organizational responses
      1. From proprietorships and partnerships to the rise of monopolies
      2. Incorporation
      3. Capital concentration; consolidation
      4. Expanding markets: national and international
      5. Merchandising changes, department stores, mail order catalogs
Factors of

Students should understand the elements and implications of the expansion and consolidation of American business following the Civil War.

  • What are the advantages of corporations over proprietorships and partnerships?
  • What methods did business leaders use to maximize profits, reduce costs, and/or eliminate competition?
  1. Major areas of growth in business and industry
    1. Transportation: railroads and automobiles; urban transportation
    2. Building materials: steel
    3. Energy sources: coal, oil, electricity
    4. Communications: telegraph, telephone
  2. Representative entrepreneurs: Case studies in concentrated wealth and effort (other personalities may be substituted; local examples of enterprise should also be used)
    1. John D. Rockefeller: oil; Andrew Carnegie: steel; Ford: auto
    2. Work ethic: Cotton Mather to Horatio Alger
    3. Conflict between public good and private gain, e.g., use of resources
  3. New business and government practices: Popular and government responses
    1. Laissez-faire and government support; interpretation of 14th Amendment by Supreme Court
    2. Railroad "pooling"; rate inequities (Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railway v. Illinois, 1886); railroad regulation: state and national ICC.
    3. Competition and absorption; mergers and trusts; Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890 (United States v. E.C. Knight, 1895)
Science and

Students should understand the geographic effects of the railroads on the United States.

  • For the various business leaders studied, what benefits did each individual?s success bring to American society?
  • How did these "captains of industry" build great fortunes? How did they use their wealth? What effects did the practices employed by these business leaders have upon competition? Were these business leaders "captains of industry" or "robber barons"?
  • How do the prominent business leaders of the late-19th century compare with prominent contemporary business leaders?
  • What examples of philanthropic contributions exist in your community?

Students should note that while the government basically pursued a policy of laissez-faire, there were many government policies that encouraged business development at this time.

  • What is meant by "laissez-faire"?
  • How did land grants, subsidies to railroads, tariff and monetary policies, military interventions to break strikes, injunctions, and immigration policies aid the development of business and industry?
  • How did Supreme Court rulings affect efforts to regulate business?
  • To what extent was the Sherman Antitrust Act effective in protecting competition?
  • How did groups such as farmers, consumers, workers, and company stockholders react to railroad practices during this time period?
  • How effective was government regulation of railroads at the state level? national level?
  1. Labor?s response to economic change: Organize
    1. Efforts at national labor unions: Knights of Labor (1869); AF of L (1881-1886); ILGWU (1900)
      1. "Bread and butter" objectives
      2. Unions and social issues (education)
      3. Attitudes toward immigrants, African- Americans, women
      4. Union leadership (Gompers, Debs)
    2. Struggle and conflict
      1. Major strikes: gains and losses-- Homestead, Pullman (In Re Debs, 1895), Lawrence
      2. Management?s position
      3. Weapons or tactics employed in disputes between labor and management
      4. Attitude and role of government
Factors of
  Systems Diversity

Students should understand that poor working conditions led to the formation of labor unions.

  • How did the AF of L and Knights of Labor differ in terms of types of workers organized; their views of immigrants, African-Americans, Chinese and women workers; union leadership; their positions on strikes and reform agendas?
  • How do the goals of labor unions in the late-19th century compare with goals today?
  • For the following three strikes, chart (a) conditions that led to the strike, (b) tactics used by both sides, (c) union leadership, (d) role of state or federal government, and (e) outcome of the strike: (1) Homestead (2) Pullman (3) Lawrence
  1. Agrarian response to economic change: Organize and protest
    1. The Grange movement as agrarian protest
    2. Populism: a political response--William Jennings Bryan and the election of 1896
      1. Case study: The Populists as a grassroots political party
    3. National government response: Interstate Commerce Act, 1887

Students should understand the problems faced by farmers in an expanding industrial economy and assess various efforts to resolve these problems.

  • What were the problems experienced by small farmers?
  • Compare the problems of farmers in the 1890s, 1920s, 1950s, 1980s.
  • What economic solutions were proposed by the Grangers?
  • To what extent was the Populist party successful in resolving the problems of farmers? What aspects of the Populist agenda were eventually legislated?
  • Was the Populist party a "typical" third party?
Content Concepts/
  1. Impact of industrialization
    1. Urban growth
      1. Attractions: jobs, education, culture, public education system
      2. b. Problems (slums, increased crime, inadequate water and sanitation services)
      3. Skyscrapers and elevators; tenements and walk-ups
      4. Social Darwinism, increased class division, conspicuous consumption, social conscience, philanthropy
Culture and

Students should understand the economic, social, and political implications of rapid industrial growth and the shift from a rural to an urban way of life.

  • What transformations did your own community undergo during this time period?

Students should contrast the views of Social Darwinists like Carnegie, Russell Conwell, Vanderbilt, Rockefeller, and Morgan with the views of labor leaders, Populists, and Progressive reformers.

    1. Work and workers
      1. Factories and people--immigrant patterns of settlement
      2. Geographic, economic, social, and political considerations
      3. Working conditions: "wage slavery"
      4. Living conditions: company towns and urban slums
      5. The Great Migration: The migration of African-Americans to the North
    2. Women, families, and work
      1. Traditional roles-- Victorian ideal and reality
      2. Outside and inside their homes: double drudgery
      3. Jobs for domestics, laundresses, and textile workers; technology brought jobs as telephone operators and typists
      4. Emerging family patterns: two wage earners, broken homes
      5. Problems of child labor, elderly, disabled, and African-American women
        1. Case study: child labor
Factors of
  • Use political cartoons to illustrate the images of big business and the call for reforms.
  • How were the lives of working- class women and children affected by industrialization? How did this reality compare with the Victorian view of traditional roles in society?
  • What insights about the nature of child labor can be drawn from John Spargo?s The Bitter Cry of the Children?

Describe the effects of internal migration on different regions of the United States.

  • How was the class structure altered by industrialization?
      1. Role of religion in a pluralistic society
        1. Religious tolerance develops slowly
        2. Puritan beliefs and values influenced our historical development
        3. Religion and party politics to 1896
      2. The growing middle class (consumerism and its material benefits and effects)
      3. Art and literature (Mark Twain and penny dailies)
Culture and
  1. Immigration, 1850-1924
    1. New sources: eastern/southern Europe; Asia-- the "new ethnicity"
      1. Case studies: Italian immigration, Chinese immigration (1850-1924, West to East migration), Russian/Jewish immigration

Students should understand the characteristics that distinguished the new immigrants (1850-1924) from the earlier immigrant groups. What difficulties did they face? In what specific ways did they contribute to the shaping of American society?

    1. The impulses abroad
    2. The attractions here: labor shortages, liberty, and freedoms
    3. Urbanization: ghettos
    4. "Americanization" process
    5. Impacts on family, religion, education, and politics
    6. Contributions to American society
      1. Diversity of the United States population
  • Use cartoons from Thomas Nast to illustrate the negative reactions to these new immigrants.
  • Compare and contrast the following:
    • nativist movement of 1850s
    • Ku Klux Klan of 1860s and 1870s
    • Ku Klux Klan of 1920s
  1. Reactions to the "new" immigration
    1. Cultural pluralism: assimilation (Americanization), acculturation ("melting pot" or cultural pluralism), or both
    2. Nativist reactions: stereotyping and prejudice
      1. Case study: Irish immigration
    3. Impact on African-Americans and other established minorities
Culture and
  • What conflicts between American ideals and reality are illustrated in a study of immigration laws such as (1) Chinese Exclusion Act, (2) Gentlemen?s Agreement, (3) Literacy Test (1917), (4) Emergency Quota Act (1921), (5) Immigration Restriction Act (1924), (6) the McCarran-Walter Act (1952), and (7) immigration legislation of 1965, 1986, and the 1990s?
    1. "Yellow Peril," West Coast restrictions
    2. Literacy testing, 1917
    3. The Red Scare
    4. Quota acts of 1921 and 1924
  • Locate the concentrations of different ethnic groups in the United States at the turn of the 20th century.
  1. The frontier (1850-1890)
    1. Land west of the Mississippi
      1. Rolling plains and the Great American Desert
      2. Native American Indian nations; concept of oneness with the environment
      3. The Homestead Act, 1862, and the settlement of the West
  • Use an excerpt from Frederick Jackson Turner?s frontier thesis and an excerpt from one of his critics to illustrate conflicting views about the role of the frontier in the making of American democracy.
    1. The impact of industrialization
      1. Improved transportation facilitated shipping of foodstuffs and migration of population
      2. Western migration of immigrants
      3. Potential for investment: development of key urban centers
Science and
  • What are the geographic differences between the Great Plains, the Southwest, and the Rocky Mountains regions of the West?
  • What role did government policies play in the settling of the West?

Have students consider the Homestead Act, land grants and subsidies to transcontinental railroads, and liberal immigration policy.

  • How did the Industrial Revolution contribute to the economic development of the Great Plains?
    1. Native American Indians
      1. Pressures of advancing white settlement: differing views of land use and ownership
      2. Treaties and legal status
      3. The Indian wars: 1850-1900
      4. Legislating Indian life: reservations; Dawes Act (1887)
      5. Indian civil rights laws-- legal status of Native American Indians, 1887-1970: citizenship, 1924; self- government, 1934; selfdetermination, 1970

Students should understand the clash that occurred between Native American Indians and advancing white settlers.

  • How did the Native American Indians? concepts of land ownership and respect for the natural environment compare with that of the white settlers?
  • Were the Indian wars a case study of genocide?
  • Evaluate the federal government?s attempts to address Native American Indian rights from 1887 to the present.

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